How a Silvia Works
All wiring
Off
On, heating up
On, at temp
Brewing espresso
Steam, heating up
Steam, at temp
Pumping hot water
Overheated
Modification for PID
Dual Setpoint PID
Advanced Dual Setpoint PID

Coffee Cup
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Heating up to Steaming Temperature

With the steam switch on, electricity flows through the steam thermostat and then through the heating element, and the panel lamp is illuminated to show that the heating element is on. Note that the blue wire from the steam switch bypasses the brew thermostat and that even though the brew thermostat is open ("off") at this time, electricity can still get to the steam thermostat which is now in control of the heating element.